TitleScreening for monogenic subtypes of gestational diabetes in a high prevalence island population - a whole exome sequencing study
AIMS The reported frequency of monogenic defects of beta cell function in gestational diabetes (GDM) varies extensively. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency and molecular spectrum of variants in genes associated with monogenic/atypical diabetes in non-obese females of Maltese ethnicity with GDM.
METHODS 50 non-obese females who met the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria for diagnosis of GDM and with a first-degree relative with non-autoimmune diabetes were included in this study. Whole exome capture and high throughput sequencing was carried out. Rare sequence variants were filtered, annotated, and prioritized according to the American College for Medical Genetics guidelines. For selected missense variants we explored effects on protein stability and structure through in-silico tools.
RESULTS We identified three pathogenic variants in GCK, ABCC8 and HNF1A and several variants of uncertain significance in the cohort. Genotype-phenotype correlations and post-pregnancy follow-up data are described.
CONCLUSIONS This study provides the first insight into an underlying monogenic aetiology in non-obese females with GDM from an island population having a high prevalence of diabetes. It suggests that monogenic variants constitute an underestimated cause of diabetes detected in pregnancy, and that careful evaluation of GDM probands to identify monogenic disease subtypes is indicated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.