Different Indicators of Adiposity and Fat Distribution and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
May 1, 2021
Citation: Obesity (Silver Spring). 2021 May; 29(5): 837-845

OBJECTIVE This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adiposity and fat distribution on the odds of elevated cardiovascular risk factors among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
METHODS The present cross-sectional study included 2,427 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Body fat was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression was used to estimate effects of adiposity parameters on elevated hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c , ≥7.0%), hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg), and elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (≥2.6 mmol/L).
RESULTS The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for elevated HbA 1c was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.70-0.96) for each SD increase in leg fat mass. The multivariable-adjusted OR for hypertension was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.00-1.32) for each SD increase in android fat mass. Multivariable-adjusted ORs for elevated LDL cholesterol ranged from 1.16 (95% CI: 1.00-1.35) to 1.27 (95% CI: 1.06-1.51) for each SD increase in arm and android fat mass and percentage of total, truncal, arm, and android fat. Each SD increase in BMI, truncal-to-leg fat ratio, and android-to-gynoid fat ratio was significantly associated with increased risks of elevated HbA 1c , hypertension, and elevated LDL cholesterol.
CONCLUSIONS Subcutaneous fat in the lower body was associated with a more favorable glycemic profile, but not blood pressure or lipid profile, whereas central adiposity was associated with poor control of cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.