TitleAssociation of dietary diversity score (DDS) and migraine headache severity among women
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Migraine is an episodic disorder that is characterized by unilateral headache lasting 4-72 h along with certain associated features. Modifying dietary habits have been considered an appropriate therapeutic approach in these patients. This study was designed to examine the association between dietary diversity score (DDS) and severity, frequency, and duration of migraine attacks.
METHODS AND MATERIALS The present study was conducted using a cross-sectional design on 256 women 18-50 years old referred to neurology clinics for the first time. After the diagnosis of migraine by a neurologist, the data related to anthropometric measures and dietary intake (147-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire) were collected. To assess migraine severity, the migraine disability assessment questionnaire (MIDAS), visual analog scale (VAS), and a 30-day headache diary were used. Multinomial logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between DDS and migraine severity. The age, physical activity, BMI, and job were considered confounding variables in regression model. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and P values< 0.05 considered statistically significant.
RESULTS Totally, 256 subjects participated in the present study with mean age, height, weight, and BMI of 34.28 ± 7.88 years, 161.78 ± 5.18 cm, 69.25 ± 13.06 kg, and 26.46 ± 4.89 kg/m2, respectively. Subjects with higher DDS had a lower waist circumference (P = 0.01). There was no association between DDS and other anthropometric measures and demographic characteristics (P > 0.05). In the crude model of logistic regression, participants with lower DDS had higher odds of more pain severity (OR = 2.30; 95% CI = 1.28, 4.12; P = 0.005), migraine disability (OR = 2.66; 95% CI = 1.51, 4.69; P = 0.001), and headache duration (OR = 2.32; CI = 1.22, 4.40; P = 0.01) compared to reference group. No association was found between headache frequency and DDS. Adjusting for the effect of confounding variables did not change the significant association.
CONCLUSION DDS was inversely associated with migraine disability, pain severity, and headache frequency. Additional studies are needed to replicate these findings and to explore mechanisms that mediate the association between DDS and migraine attacks.